It contributes 70 m3/s (2,500 cu ft/s) to the Rhine. the total discharge of the Rhine is subject to significant fluctuations, and average values cited vary between sources; the total discharge taken into account here consists of: The Rhine only has an official length scale (, The Rhine is cited as the "twelfth-longest river of Europe", The Rhine was not known in the Hellenistic period. In the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism. The culminating point of the Anterior Rhine's drainage basin is the Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres (11,854 ft) above sea level. Drought-hit cargo river sparks economic fears", "Maps of Switzerland – Swiss Confederation – GEWISS", "Hydrometrische MessstationRhein-Diepoldsau - Stationsposter", Extreme Hochwasser des Rheins bei Basel – Herleitung von Szenarien, "Atlas der Schweiz Switzerland maps by Swiss Federal Office of Topography", "Fluvial Deposits As a Record for Late Quaternary Neotectonic Activity in the Rhine-Meuse Delta, The Netherlands", "Architecture of the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta (the Netherlands) – A result of changing external controls", Navigation details for 80 French rivers and canals, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rhine&oldid=998249067, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, All articles containing potentially dated statements, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2014, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles containing Alemannic German-language text, Articles containing Old English (ca. It rises in the Black Forest mountains of western Germany and flows for some 1,770 miles (2,850 km) to its mouth on the Black Sea. River: Rhine. The southern part was different. Three more flows carry significant amounts of water: the Nieuwe Merwede ("New Merwede"), which branches off from the southern branch where it changes from Boven to Beneden Merwede; the Oude Maas ("Old Meuse"), which branches off from the southern branch where it changes from Beneden Merwede into Noord, and Dordtse Kil, which branches off from Oude Maas. The length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in "Rhine-kilometers" (Rheinkilometer), a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance (0 km) to Hoek van Holland (1036.20 km). Forced Order. However, there are plenty of them open to visitors. This also became the subject of a film, The Bridge at Remagen. And the best place to start is the Moselle and Rhine River … Early engineering projects the Upper Rhine also had issues, with Tulla's project at one part of the river creating rapids, after the Rhine cut down from erosion to sheer rock. In Bonn, where the Sieg flows into the Rhine, the Rhine enters the North German Plain and turns into the Lower Rhine. The number was reduced to four as more units were moved to the Danube. The last phase slightly predates the global last ice age maximum (Last Glacial Maximum). : "Water of the Russein"). The river is significantly shortened from its natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century. Are you sure you want to delete your score and checked items on this list? The Rhine flows through six countries - Switzerland, Principality of Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, France and the Netherlands before flowing into the North Sea at Rotterdam. The river is navigable for about 500 miles, from the North Sea to Basel, Switzerland, though ocean-faring ships can't go past Cologne. Its sources are located in the Adula Alps (Rheinwaldhorn, Rheinquellhorn, and Güferhorn). The Rhine is the longest river in Germany. These state projects were part of the advanced and technical progress efforts going on in the country alongside the industrial revolution. Establishing "natural borders" on the Rhine was a long-term goal of French foreign policy, since the Middle Ages, though the language border was – and is – far more to the west. Uncover the best-kept secret in river... Ship: River Queen. The river makes a distinctive turn to the north near Chur. Countries: Netherlands, Germany. It is over 700 miles long, begins in the Swiss Alps and empties into the North Sea after flowing through the Netherlands. Tributaries of the Rhine River Seattle: University of Washington Press.48–49, Cioc, Mark. The region downstream of Duisburg is more agricultural. In the centre of Basel, the first major city in the course of the stream, is located the "Rhine knee"; this is a major bend, where the overall direction of the Rhine changes from west to north. The Alsace on the left banks of the Upper Rhine was sold to Burgundy by Archduke Sigismund of Austria in 1469 and eventually fell to France in the Thirty Years' War. In northwest Europe, it saw two very cold phases, peaking around 70,000 BP and around 29,000–24,000 BP. Lake Untersee is part of the border between Switzerland and Germany, with Germany on the north bank and Switzerland on the south, except both sides are Swiss in Stein am Rhein, where the High Rhine flows out of the lake. The discharge of the Rhine is divided into three branches: the Waal (6/9 of total discharge), the Nederrijn – Lek (2/9 of total discharge) and the IJssel (1/9 of total discharge). Due to the cooperation of the Rhine-bordering countries within the ICPR, not only the water quality of the Rhine but also its ecological state has further improved. 2002: 54, Cioc, Mark. The name Rijn, from here on, is used only for smaller streams farther to the north, which together formed the main river Rhine in Roman times. According to geologists, the characteristic narrow valley form was created by erosion by the river while the surrounding landscape was lifted (see water gap). Enjoy exclusive sailings with AmaWaterways, a leader in luxury river cruising, as well as exciting activities for every member of your family. On other stretches, both sides are Swiss; in fact most of the canton of Schaffhausen is on the north bank. Rhine, Main & Danube Discovery (new) ... the regal River Queen or the elegant River Empress; Lavishly appointed riverview staterooms and suites have handcrafted Savoir® Beds of England, high thread count 100% Egyptian cotton sheets and European duvets, and a menu of pillow options ; Free Internet and Wi-Fi access; Experiences. At the begin of the Holocene (~11,700 years ago), the Rhine occupied its Late-Glacial valley. 22,000–14,000 yr BP, when ice-sheets covered Scandinavia, the Baltics, Scotland and the Alps, but left the space between as open tundra. The northern Alps were then drained by the Danube. Ernst's Insider Tips: All this time, the river flows – the Rhine in NRW. The lake is situated in Germany, Switzerland and Austria near the Alps. Near Koblenz in the canton of Aargau, the Aare joins the Rhine. This system of numerous bays, estuary-like extended rivers, many islands and constant changes of the coastline, is hard to imagine today. At the Waal, for example, the most landward tidal influence can be detected between Brakel and Zaltbommel. It starts with the creek Aua da Russein (lit. 2022 Booking Opens to Select Audiences beginning January 19, 2021: It flows farther west, to rejoin the Noord into the Nieuwe Maas and to the North Sea. The actual number of legions present at any base or in all, depended on whether a state or threat of war existed. The first urban settlement, on the grounds of what is today the centre of Cologne, along the Rhine, was Oppidum Ubiorum, which was founded in 38 BC by the Ubii. The valleys are separated by the Rofla Gorge and Viamala Gorge. Specifically, its shorelines lie in the German states of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg, the Austrian state of Vorarlberg, and the Swiss cantons of Thurgau and St. Gallen. The construction of Delta Works changed the Delta in the second half of the 20th Century fundamentally. Spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian, Occitan and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-. Seattle: University of Washington Press. [18] Tulla is considered to have domesticated the Upper Rhine, domestication that served goals such as reducing stagnant bogs that fostered waterborne diseases, making regions more habitable for human settlement, and reduce high frequency of flooded water. Enjoy this melding of cultures as you dine alfresco at a café along the banks of the Rhine. This meant that high tide formed a serious risk because strong tidal currents could tear huge areas of land into the sea. the Anterior Rhine lies entirely within Switzerland, while at least one tributary to Posterior Rhine, the Alpine Rhine flows within Switzerland till, the first parts of the High Rhine, from Lake Constance to, the Upper Rhine is the border between France (to the west) and Switzerland (to the east) for a short distance, from Basel to. Above this point is the extensive catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine. Since 7500 years ago the situation of tides, currents and land-forms has resembled the present. Sights and activities for the whole family complete the offer for visitors of one of the largest rivers in Europe. Learn how to create your own. The length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in "Rhine-kilometers" (Rheinkilometer), a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance (0 km) to Hoek van Holland (1036.20 km). The Upper Rhine had been part of the areal of the late Hallstatt culture since the 6th century BC, and by the 1st century BC, the areal of the La Tène culture covered almost its entire length, forming a contact zone with the Jastorf culture, i.e. A curiosity of this border line is that the parts of the city of Mainz on the right bank of the Rhine were given to Hesse by the occupying forces in 1945. For most of its length, the Seerhein forms the border between Germany and Switzerland. The river begins in Grisons, Switzerland, and its headwaters emerge from Lake Tomasee, which is considered the primary source of the Rhine. As a result of increasing land clearance (Bronze Age agriculture), in the upland areas (central Germany), the sediment load of the Rhine has strongly increased[28] and delta growth has speeded up. 53, Cioc, Mark. Popular Quizzes Today. During this time, the lower Rhine flowed roughly west through the Netherlands and extended to the southwest, through the English Channel and finally, to the Atlantic Ocean. The Lorelei supposedly sits on a rock in the gorge of the Rhenish Slate Mountains and lures sailors to their deaths. In the Netherlands it continues northwards through Venlo closely along the border to Germany, then turns towards the west, where it runs parallel to the Waal and forms part of the extensive Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta , together with the Scheldt in its south and the Rhine … The Rhine Gorge between Rüdesheim am Rhein and Koblenz is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. No other river has so many world-renowned cities situated on its banks. It passes four countries and unique landscapes. The Dornbirner Ach had to be diverted, too, and it now flows parallel to the canalized Rhine into the lake. Major tributaries in this section are the Lahn and the Moselle. This was followed by embankment of the major distributaries and damming of minor distributaries, which took place in the 11–13th century AD. Vespasian had commanded II Augusta, before his promotion to imperator. Since the Rhine contributes most of the water, the shorter term Rhine Delta is commonly used. On the few remaining natural sections, there are still several rapids. The cold water flows near the surface and at first doesn't mix with the warmer, green waters of Upper Lake. With an average water flow of 373 m³/s (mean summer discharge 700 m³/s) it is the largest waterfall in Europe in terms of potential energy.[17]. During interglacials, when sea level rose to approximately the present level, the Rhine built deltas, in what is now the Netherlands. Through stream capture, the Rhine extended its watershed southward. The flow of cold, grey mountain water continues for some distance into the lake. Thereafter, canals were dug, bends were straightened and groynes were built to prevent the river's channels from migrating or silting up. It is the border between Switzerland and Liechtenstein and also the border between Germany and France. Beyond these rivers she held only the fertile plain of Frankfurt, opposite the Roman border fortress of Moguntiacum (Mainz), the southernmost slopes of the Black Forest and a few scattered bridge-heads. Enjoy exclusive sailings with AmaWaterways, a leader in luxury river cruising, as well as exciting activities for every member of your family. Here the High Rhine ends. Between Bingen am Rhein and Bonn, the Middle Rhine flows through the Rhine Gorge, a formation which was created by erosion. Around 2.5 million years ago (ending 11,600 years ago) was the geological period of the Ice Ages. The delta is delimited in the west by the Alter Rhein ("Old Rhine") and in the east by a modern canalized section. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe (after the Danube), at about 1,230 km (760 mi),[note 1][note 2] with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s (100,000 cu ft/s). " The Rhine River forms a border between which two countries?. Unlike the Alpine Rhine and Upper Rhine, it flows to the west. In a separate operation, the Ludendorff Bridge, crossing the Rhine at Remagen, became famous, when U.S. forces were able to capture it intact – much to their own surprise – after the Germans failed to demolish it. What Does George Soros' Open Society Foundations Network Fund? 750-1050)-language text, Articles containing Middle Dutch (ca. 54, Cioc, Mark. The Ruhr currently provides the region with drinking water. After this number was placed into the authoritative Brockhaus Enzyklopädie, it became generally accepted and found its way into numerous textbooks and official publications. The present Mediterranean Sea descends from this somewhat larger Tethys sea. Here a number of river islands occur, locally known as "Rheinauen". The dominant economic sectors in the Middle Rhine area are viniculture and tourism. The Posterior Rhine rises in the Rheinwald below the Rheinwaldhorn. Miltenberg, Germany. Find and compare all 430 Rhine River tours, cruises, and packages from 42 companies. Large cities that are situated on the Rhine: Smaller cities that are situated on the Rhine: During its course from the Alps to the North Sea, the Rhine passes through four countries and constitutes six different country borders. The Seerhein is only four km long. This branch once formed the line along which the Limes Germanicus were built. The Rhine has been historically important since the days of Julius Caesar, who built a bridge over it in approximately 53 B.C. Here the Rhine flows through the largest conurbation in Germany, the Rhine-Ruhr region. The Mainz Basin ends in Bingen am Rhein; the Rhine continues as "Middle Rhine" into the Rhine Gorge in the Rhenish Slate Mountains. [note 1]. The Aare more than doubles the Rhine's water discharge, to an average of nearly 1,000 m3/s (35,000 cu ft/s), and provides more than a fifth of the discharge at the Dutch border. The English Channel, the Irish Channel and most of the North Sea were dry land, mainly because sea level was approximately 120 m (390 ft) lower than today. The Radolfzeller Aach adds large amounts of water from the Danube system to the Untersee. But why stop with Basel when there’s so much more of Switzerland to see. It connects the Obersee with the 30 cm lower Untersee. For flood protection reasons, the Meuse was separated from the Waal through a lock and diverted into a new outlet called "Bergse Maas", then Amer and then flows into the former bay Hollands Diep. Lake Tomasee is situated in the northwestern area of the Alps Mountains, within the Lepontine Alps range, and can be seen … About 7000–5000 BP, a general warming encouraged migration of all former ice-locked areas, including up the Danube and down the Rhine by peoples to the east. At the end of World War I, the Rhineland was subject to the Treaty of Versailles. The variants of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, which was adapted in Roman-era geography (1st century BC) as Greek Ῥῆνος (Rhēnos), Latin Rhenus. This creates three main flows, two of which change names rather often. The water then follows the northern shore until Hagnau am Bodensee. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site (2002) and known as "the Romantic Rhine", with more than 40 castles and fortresses from the Middle Ages and many quaint and lovely country villages. At present, the branches Waal and Nederrijn-Lek discharge to the North Sea through the former Meuse estuary, near Rotterdam. From the death of Augustus in AD 14 until after AD 70, Rome accepted as her Germanic frontier the water-boundary of the Rhine and upper Danube. For the German state, to make the river more predictable was to ensure development projects could easily commence.[23]. Most of the delta is a nature reserve and bird sanctuary. the Lower Rhine flows within Germany until, all parts of the Delta Rhein flows within the Netherlands until they enter the, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 14:05. Germany’s spectacular backdrops and breathtaking natural wonders will reveal themselves as you cruise along the alluring Moselle and Rhine rivers. The Rhine forms the border between Liechtenstein and Switzerland, Switzerland and Germany and part of the border between Germany and France. Dead branches were removed by construction workers and the area around the river was made more habitable for humans on flood plains as the rate of flooding decreased sharply. the geography and geology of its present-day watershed has been developing since the Alpine orogeny began. The Rhine flows from the Alps to the North Sea Basin. The Rhine: an eco-biography, 1815–2000. The northern section of this frontier, where the Rhine is deep and broad, remained the Roman boundary until the empire fell. It includes the Austrian towns of Gaißau, Höchst and Fußach. The whole stretch of the Anterior Rhine to the Alpine Rhine confluence next to Reichenau in Tamins is accompanied by a long-distance hiking trail called Senda Sursilvana.[16]. Several microplates were caught in the squeeze and rotated or were pushed laterally, generating the individual features of Mediterranean geography: Iberia pushed up the Pyrenees; Italy, the Alps, and Anatolia, moving west, the mountains of Greece and the islands. It descends from 395 m to 252 m. Some stretches of the High Rhine between Stein am Rhein and Eglisau form the border between Switzerland on the south bank and Germany in the north. The river traverses the southern, which, in isolation, is sometimes called Rhinesee ("Lake Rhine"). 4 countries: France, Germany, the … Starting from the Swiss town of Basel, the river flows for 435 miles through Germany, past France and eventually to the Netherlands, where it spills out into the North Sea. Once an integral cog in the industrial heritage of Europe, the Rhine now serves as the perfect river cruising destination. Lake Constance consists of three bodies of water: the Obersee ("upper lake"), the Untersee ("lower lake"), and a connecting stretch of the Rhine, called the Seerhein ("Lake Rhine"). 2002. Since ~3000 yr BP (= years Before Present), human impact is seen in the delta. But then, at the so-called Rheinbrech, the Rhine water abruptly falls into the depths because of the greater density of cold water. The hydrography of the current delta is characterized by the delta's main arms, disconnected arms (Hollandse IJssel, Linge, Vecht, etc.) The river’s banks are brimming with historic treasures, natural beauty and vibrant capitals. Loops, oxbows, branches and islands were removed along the Upper Rhine so that there would be a present uniformity to the river. In addition, were a double legion, XIV and XVI, at Moguntiacum (Mainz). Seattle: University of Washington Press. Geography Quiz / Blitz: Rhine River Countries Random Geography or Country Quiz Can you name the countries that the Rhine River flows through or borders? [note 7] The "total length of the Rhine", to the inclusion of Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine is more difficult to measure objectively; it was cited as 1,232 kilometres (766 miles) by the Dutch Rijkswaterstaat in 2010. The Rhine is the setting for many myths and legends. 2021 Bookings – Enjoy Flexible Payment Terms. A regulation of the Rhine was called for, with an upper canal near Diepoldsau and a lower canal at Fußach, in order to counteract the constant flooding and strong sedimentation in the western Rhine Delta. There remained some dry land in the southern North Sea, known as Doggerland, connecting mainland Europe to Britain. Examples: Next to Reichenau in Tamins the Anterior Rhine and the Posterior Rhine join and form the Alpine Rhine. [19] Four diplomatic treaties were signed among German state governments and French regions dealing with the changes proposed along the Rhine, one was "the Treaty for the Rectification of the Rhine flow from Neuberg to Dettenheim"(1817), which surrounded states such as Bourbon France and the Bavarian Palatinate. The Lower Rhine flows through North Rhine-Westphalia. The Oude Maas branches off, near Dordrecht, farther down rejoining the Nieuwe Maas to form Het Scheur. Three countries border the Obersee, namely Switzerland in the south, Austria in the southeast and the German states of Bavaria in the northeast and Baden-Württemberg in the north and northwest. Earlier work under Frederick the Great surrounded efforts to ease shipping and construct dams to serve coal transportation. Near Sankt Goarshausen, the Rhine flows around the famous rock Lorelei. Reichenau Island was formed at the same time as the Seerhein, when the water level was lowered to its current level. Because the levees are some distance from the river, at high tide the Lower Rhine has more room for widening than the Upper Rhine. With an average discharge of 557 m³/s, the Aare is more voluminous than the Rhine, which has an average discharge of 439 m³/s. With its outstanding architectural monuments, the slopes full of vines, settlements crowded on the narrow river banks and scores of castles lined up along the top of the steep slopes, the Middle Rhine Valley can be considered the epitome of the Rhine romanticism. The rate of flow was increased and the ground water level fell significantly. The Aare also contains the waters from the 4,274 m (14,022 ft) summit of Finsteraarhorn, the highest point of the Rhine basin. There are more than 20,000 castles all over the country. Later an artificial ditch of about two km was dug. The High Rhine begins in Stein am Rhein at the western end of the Untersee. The Rhine flows through Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France, the Netherlands and Liechtenstein. [21] Johann Tulla had the goal of shortening and straightening the Upper Rhine. It is considered by many to be the most important waterway in Germany, a country our Rhine river tours will give you the opportunity to explore in … [15], In its lower course the Anterior Rhine flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta (Flims Rockslide). The Alpine section of the Rhine lies in Switzerland, and below Basel the river forms the boundary between western Germany and France, as far downstream as the Lauter River. For the army of Germania Superior: one legion, II Augusta, at Argentoratum (Strasbourg); and one, XIII Gemina, at Vindonissa (Windisch). The river Rhine begins at Tomasee, a lake in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland, and runs through Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Catchment of the Rhine carries very large amounts of debris into the (... The subject of a film, the Alpine orogeny caused a north-south rift system to the Danube flows. Western end of the water flows through the Netherlands and Liechtenstein southern half of the coastline, is located! 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